Zinc White: Problems in Oil Paint—Appendix A

Appendix A

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Table 1 Commercial Artists’ White Oil Paint

This is a revised table initially published in 2007 with current information on commercial oil colors as of November 1, 2019. The information in this table is compiled from public sources, such as manufacturers’ literature, product labels, and distributors’ websites. The information is subject to change. Please consult with the manufacturer for the latest pigment content of their paint.

Brand Name
White Oil Color
Pigment Common Names
and Colour Index Names*
Vehicle (Drying Oil)
Art Spectrum Artists’ Oil Colors
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Sunflower oil
Titanium White No. 2 Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Sunflower oil
Underpainting White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Alkyd resin
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4), titanium dioxide (PW 6) Sunflower oil
Blockx Artists’ Oil Colors
Flake White Lead white (PW 1) Poppy oil
Mixed White Lead white (PW 1), zinc oxide (PW 4) Poppy oil
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6) Poppy oil
Titanium-Zinc White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Poppy oil
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4) Poppy oil
Daler-Rowney Artists’ Oil Colours
Flake White Lead white (PW 1), zinc oxide (PW 4) Safflower oil
Mixing White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6) Linseed oil
Underpainting White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4) Linseed oil
Daniel Smith Artists’ Oil Colors
Mixed White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Safflower oil
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6) Safflower oil
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4) Safflower oil
Da Vinci Paint Co. First Quality Artists’ Oil Colors
Flake White Titanium dioxide (PW 6) Alkali refined linseed oil
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6) Alkali refined linseed oil
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4) Alkali refined linseed oil
Gamblin Artists’ Oil Colors
Cool White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), phthalocyanine blue (PB 15:2), zinc oxide (PW 4) Safflower oil
FastMatte Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Alkali-refined linseed and alkyd resin
Flake White Replacement Titanium dioxide (PW 6) Alkali-refined linseed oil
Quick Dry White Titanium dioxide (PW 6) Alkali-refined linseed oil
Radiant White Titanium dioxide (PW 6) Safflower oil
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6) Alkali-refined linseed oil
Titanium-Zinc White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Safflower oil
Warm White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), arylide yellow (PY 75), benzimidazolone orange (PO 62), zinc oxide (PW 4) Safflower oil
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4) Linseed oil
M. Graham & Co. Artists’ Oil Colors
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Walnut oil
Titanium White Rapid Dry Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Sunflower oil
Titanium White Sunflower Titanium dioxide (PW 6) Sunflower oil
Warm White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4) Walnut oil
Grumbacher Professional Pre-Tested Artists’ Oil Colors
Flake White Lead white (PW 1), zinc oxide (PW 4) Alkali-refined linseed oil
MG® Underpainting White    
Superba™ White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Proprietary blend of oils
Titanium White Original Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Titanium White Soft Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Unbleached Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Holbein Artists’ Oil Colors
Ceramic White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), strontium titanate Poppy oil
Foundation White Lead white (PW 1), titanium dioxide (PW 6) Linseed oil
Neo-Quick Base Titanium dioxide (PW 6) Linseed oil, alkyd resin, and petroleum solvent
Neo-Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4) Poppy and safflower oils
Permanent White EX Titanium dioxide (PW 6), barium sulfate (PW 21) Safflower oil
Permanent White SF Titanium dioxide (PW 6), barium sulfate (PW 21) Poppy oil
Quick Drying White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), calcium carbonate (PW 18) Poppy oil, alkyd resin, and petroleum solvent
Silver White Lead white (PW 1) Linseed oil
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6) Poppy oil
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Lefranc & Bourgeois Extra-Fine Artists’ Oil Colors
Flake White Hue Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Safflower oil
Silver White Lead white (PW 1) Safflower oil
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Safflower oil
Titanium-Zinc White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Safflower oil
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4) Safflower oil
Maimeri Oil Colors
Flake White Imitation Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Super Rapid White Titanium dioxide (PW 6)  
Super White Titanium dioxide (PW 6)  
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Maimeri Puro Oil Colors
Opaque Zinc White Zinc sulfide (PW 7)  
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6) Poppy oil and safflower oil
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4) Poppy oil and safflower oil
Michael Harding’s Handmade Artist Oil Colours
Cremnitz White No. 1 Lead white (PW 1) Linseed oil
Cremnitz White No. 2 Lead white (PW 1) Walnut oil
Flake White Lead white (PW 1) Walnut oil
Flake White No. 1 Lead white (PW 1) Poppy oil
Foundation White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), lead white (PW 1) Linseed oil
Stack Lead White Lead white (PW 1) Linseed oil
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6) Safflower oil
Titanium White No. 1 Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Safflower oil
Titanium White No. 2 Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Linseed oil
Titanium White No. 3 (with driers) Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Linseed oil
Unbleached Titanium Buff titanium (PW 6:1)  
Warm White Lead Alternative Titanium dioxide (PW 6), synthetic yellow iron oxide (PY 42)<, zinc oxide (PW 4) Linseed oil
Zinc White[1] Zinc oxide (PW 4) Linseed oil
Natural Pigments Rublev Colours Artists Oils[2]
Barite Barite (PW 22) Linseed oil
Ceruse Lead white (PW 1), calcium carbonate (PW 18) Alkali-refined linseed oil
Crystal White Lead white (PW 1), leaded crystal glass Walnut oil and alkali-refined linseed oil
Flemish White Lead sulfate (PW 2), lead white (PW 1) Alkali-refined linseed oil
Lead White No. 1 Lead white (PW 1) Alkali-refined linseed oil
Lead White No. 2 Lead white (PW 1) Walnut oil
Lithopone Lithopone (PW 5) Linseed oil
Mica-Lead White Lead white (PW 1), mica (PW 20) Walnut oil and alkali-refined linseed oil
Stack Flake White Lead white (PW 1) Linseed oil
Underpainting Lead White Lead white (PW 1), titanium dioxide (PW 6), calcium carbonate (PW 18) Long-oil alkyd
Venetian White Lead white (PW 1), barium sulfate (barite, PW 22) Walnut oil and alkali-refined linseed oil
Old Holland Classic Oil Colors
Cremnitz White Lead white (PW 1) Cold-pressed linseed oil
Flake White No. 1 Lead white (PW 1), zinc oxide (PW 4) Cold-pressed linseed oil
Mixed White No. 2 Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Cold-pressed linseed oil
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6) Cold-pressed linseed oil
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4) Cold-pressed linseed oil
Pēbēo Huile d'Art Super Fine Oil Colors
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Zinc and Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Pēbēo Huile Fine Studio XL Oil Colors
Imitation Zinc White Titanium dioxide (PW 6)  
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6)  
Vivid White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), ultramarine blue (PB 29)  
RGH Artists’ Oil Paints
Cremnitz White Lead white (PW 1) Provides different options
Cremnitz White Extra Fine Lead white (PW 1) Safflower oil
Cremnitz White Paste Lead white (PW 1) Cold-pressed linseed oil
Flake White Lead white (PW 1), titanium dioxide (PW 6) Safflower oil
Flemish White Lead sulfate (PW 1) Cold-pressed linseed oil
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6) Safflower oil
Titanium-Zinc White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Safflower oil
Royal Talens Rembrandt Oil Colors
Mixed White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Safflower oil
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Linseed oil
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Safflower oil
Transparent White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Safflower oil
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4) Linseed oil
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4) Safflower oil
Schmincke Mussini Oil Colors
Titanium Opaque White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Translucent White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Sennelier Artists’ Extra Fine Oil Paint
Titanium Buff Chrome antimony titanate (PBr 24), benzimidazolone yellow (PY 154), titanium dioxide (PW 6)  
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Unbleached Titanium Synthetic black iron oxide (PBk 11), chrome antimony titanate (PBr 24), titanium dioxide (PW 6), chromium oxide green (PG 17), zinc white (PW 4)  
Zinc Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Zinc White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Utrecht Artists’ Oil Colors
Flake White Lead white (PW 1)  
Flemish White Lead white (PW 1), zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Unbleached Titanium Titanium dioxide (PW 6), brown iron oxide (PBr 7), zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Utrecht White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Vasari Classic Artists’ Oil Colors
Flake White Lead white (PW 1) Alkali-refined linseed oil
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6) Alkali-refined linseed oil
Titanium-Zinc White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Alkali-refined linseed oil
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4) Alkali-refined linseed oil
Martin/F. Weber Professional Permalba® Oil Colors
Permalba White (original) Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Safflower oil
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6)  
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4)  
Williamsburg Handmade Oil Colors[3]
Flake White Lead white (PW 1) Alkali-refined linseed oil
Silver White Lead white (PW 1), zinc oxide (PW 4) Alkali-refined linseed oil
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6) Alkali-refined linseed oil
Titanium-Zinc White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Alkali-refined linseed oil
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4) Alkali-refined linseed oil
SF Flake White Lead white (PW 1) Safflower oil
SF Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6) Safflower oil
SF Porcelain White Lithopone (PW 5) Safflower oil
Winsor & Newton Artists’ Oil Colors
Cremnitz White Lead white (PW 1)  
Flake White No. 1 Zinc oxide (PW 4), lead white (PW 1) Safflower oil
Flake White No. 2 Lead white (PW 1), zinc oxide (PW 4) Safflower oil
Flake White Hue Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Safflower oil
Titanium White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4)** Safflower oil
Transparent White Titanium dioxide (PW 6)  
Foundation White Lead white (PW 1), zinc oxide (PW 4) Linseed oil
Underpainting White Titanium dioxide (PW 6), zinc oxide (PW 4) Linseed oil
Zinc White Zinc oxide (PW 4) Safflower oil


When comparing the article’s original table with the above table, we notice the declining use of zinc oxide in professional artists’ oil paints. Alternatively, perhaps companies have stopped disclosing it in their lists of pigments. Either way, we see the industry gradually accepting the research that clearly shows problems with zinc white in oil paint.

An interesting comment by artists who inquired of many of the companies on this table reported the amounts of zinc white in their formulations. Read the post on the MITRA website: Amount of zinc in titanium white oil paints—some information.

Another interesting point is the gradual decline of lead white colors, especially among the most prominent manufacturers.


Table Notes

* Only the pigments identified on the manufacturer’s labels or literature, or distributor websites are listed in the table. The absence of zinc white in the list does not mean it is not included in the paint unless the manufacturer complies with standard ASTM D 4302, in which all pigments used in the paint must be identified. In addition, minimal percentages of zinc oxide may be treated by the manufacturer as an additive, which does not have to be listed on the label in accordance with ASTM D 4302.

** The manufacturer notes that a “small amount of zinc white” is added.

Rows with a beige background indicate that this color has been discontinued or is no longer listed in the manufacturers’ catalogs or websites.

1. Michael Harding announced, ‘Due to concerns being raised regarding the film strength of this white, we have chosen to cease making it [zinc white].’’ See their website for more information. Please also view the YouTube video, “Will Michael Harding be reformulating zinc white because of flaking and delamination?”.

2. Natural Pigments has never used zinc oxide in Rublev Colours Artist Oils.

3. On February 1, 2018, Golden Artists Colors announced they removed zinc oxide from all Williamsburg oil colors except in two white oil colors, namely Zinc White and Titanium-Zinc White, which were only available in large tubes. See the announcement on their website.

Note: The original table was prepared in June 2007, with additions in 2014. The above is a revised table as of November 1, 2019. Natural Pigments is not responsible for the accuracy of the information, as the information may have changed. All information in the tables is based on published data by the manufacturers or their representatives.


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