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European PapermakingUnsized paper is called “waterleaf” paper. It is usually composed of cellulose fibers that are hydrophilic, meaning they ‘love water.’ This is an advantageous quality while paper is being made, but can lead to unfortunate consequences once the paper is made. The extreme porosity of an untreated sheet of paper means that printing or drawing inks and water-based paints will soak into the paper spreading quickly and randomly. This is called ‘bleedthrough.’ Sizing retards some of paper’s absorbency.

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6/10/2013 12:14 AM By George O'Hanlon Sizes - Adhesives, Supports,

Wood Panel Cross SectionPart one on preparing wood panels for painting with the application of chalk grounds, and fifth in our technical series on painting icons, this article discusses the history and materials used in the preparation of wood panels for tempera painting — size, pavoloka and gesso — since the earliest period of Christian art until today. While the series specifically applies to making icon boards and preparing them for painting egg tempera icons, it has application to preparing wood panels for painting in any medium on chalk grounds.

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6/9/2013 4:00 PM By George O'Hanlon Grounds, Sizes - Adhesives, Supports,

Part two on preparing a wood panel for painting with the application of chalk grounds and sixth in our technical series on painting icons, this article discusses preparing the glue solution used in the preparation of wood panels for tempera painting—size, pavoloka and gesso—since the earliest Christian period until today. While the series specifically apply to making icon boards and preparing them for painting egg tempera icons, it has application to preparing wood panels for painting in any medium on chalk grounds.

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6/9/2013 3:00 PM By George O'Hanlon collagen, glue, Sizes - Adhesives, Recipes,

This is a traditional method of preparing canvas supports for oil painting, using rabbit skin size (animal collagen glue) and oil ground. Herein briefly is the process of preparing a picture canvas for painting.

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6/3/2013 1:00 PM By George O'Hanlon Grounds, Sizes - Adhesives, Supports,

Gilding is an art that requires dexterity, savoir-faire and skill, qualities that craftsmen obtain after years of experience. There are two basic techniques in applying gold or metal leaf to surfaces: oil and water gilding. Both techniques employ a glue to adhere the leaf to the substrate, but the difference lies in the type of glue. This technique uses a water-based glue or size.

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6/2/2013 9:45 PM By George O'Hanlon Gilding, Sizes - Adhesives,

Kolner ColnasizeKölner Colnasize is a concentrate and an easily prepared size designed for the adhesion of gold and silver leaf to Kölner Burnishing Clay and Kölner Insta-Clay.

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6/2/2013 9:30 PM By George O'Hanlon Gilding, Sizes - Adhesives,

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